PKXv-Kp-cp B-Zn-i-¦-cm-Nm-cy-cp-sS P-·wsImïpw {In-kv-Xp-in-jy\m-b hn-ip² tXm-am-{io-lm-bp-sS ]m-Z-kv-]À-i-\w-sImïpw ]p-Wyam-b Ime-Sn {Km-a-¯n 1942þ ]-S-bm-«n ]u-temþa-dn-bw Z-¼-Xn-am-cp-sS 8 a-¡-fn C-f-b a-I-\m-bn tUm. ]n.]n.tZh-Ên P-\n¨p. ssl-kv-IqÄ hn-Zym-`ym-k-¯n-\p-ti-jw C³-Uy³ BÀ-an-bn ssk-\n-I-\m-bn tNÀ-¶p. 1965, 1971 C³-Uyþ]m-¡n-Øm³ bp-²-¯n G-ähpw ap-¶-Wn-bnÂX-s¶ ]-s¦-Sp-¡p-I-bpw, \m-Km-emâv, P-½pþIm-iv-aoÀ, a-Wn-¸qÀ XpS-§n hf-sc A-]-I-S-]qÀ-®am-b ta-J-e-I-fn tkh-\w A-\p-jvTn-¡p-Ibpw sN-bvXp. G-jy-bn-se G-ähpw {][m-\ cm-Py-c-£m-Øm-]-\am-b 'C³-^³{Sn kv-IqÄ' (bp-²-t¯bpw Bbp-[ D-]-tbm-K-§-tfbpw Ip-dn-¨v hn-tZ-in-I-sf-bS-¡w ]Tn-¸n-¡p-¶ Øew) a-²y-{]-tZ-in tamhv F-¶ Ø-e-¯p-Å Øm-]-\-¯n tIm-gv-kn-\v \n-b-an-X-\m-Ip-Ibpw {]-ikv-X hnP-bw t\-Sn am-k-§Ä-¡p-Ån A-tX Øm-]-\-¯n A-²ym-]-I-\m-bn \n-b-an-X-\m-Ip-I-bpw 3 sImÃ-§Ä I-gn-ª-t¸mÄ tPm-en I-b-ä-¯n-\v kz-´w bq-Wn-än-te-¡v Xn-cn-¨p t]m-tI-ïn h-¶-t¸mÄ, C-´y³ N-cn-{X-¯n B-Zy-am-bn Øm-]-\-¯nÂX-s¶ {]-tam-j³ \Â-Ip-I-bpw, 5 hÀ-jw h-sc Xp-S-cp-Ibpw sN-bv-Xp. 1980 BZyw kzbw hn-c-an¨v \m-«n Xn-cn-s¨¯n. A-{]-Xo-£n-X-am-bn hÀ-½m-Pn-bp-sS {]kw-K ]c-¼-c tIÄ-¡p-hm³ C-S-h-cn-I-bpw, hÀ-½m-Pn-bp-sS k-aq-l-kv-t\-l-¯n-epw, \n-kzmÀ-° tk-\-¯nepw B-Ir-ã-\m-bn {]-Ir-Xn Po-h-\-cwK-¯v hÀ-½mPn-tbm-sSm-¸w \n-kzmÀ-°-am-bv {]-hÀ-¯n-¡p-hm³ Xo-cp-am-\n¨v, ]n-¶n-« 36 hÀ-j-§-fm-bv k-Po-h-ambv Cu cwK-¯v {]-hÀ-¯n¨p-sIm-ïn-cn-¡p-¶p. 3 a-¡-fn aq-¯ 2 B¬-a-¡fpw b-Ym-{I-aw C³-Uy³ FbÀ-t^m-gv-kn-epw, C-´y³ t\-hn-bnepw Hm-^o-k-À-am-cm-bn ssk\n-I tkh-\w sN-¿p¶p. C-f-b a-IÄ ]n-Xm-hn-sâ ]m-X-tbm-S-\p-_-Ô-am-bv B-bpÀth-Z tUmÎÀ, k-l-[À-½n-Wn {][m-\ A-²ym-]n-I-bmbpw hn-c-an¨p.